Pharmacogenomics is providing insights into factors that impact how drugs work for different patients, including disease state and therapy. Improvements in patient outcome such as disability or mortality are some of the end points in assessing the role of pharmacogenomics in personalized medicine.
Before the implication of pharmacogenomics in personalized patient therapy, disease diagnosis and treatment was based on factors that might suggest several diseases. Today, diagnosis and treatment have become more accurate because physicians are able to analyze the genes associated with the disease. This method is not only resulting in identifying the presence of a specific disease, it can also determine the disease subtype with precision.
Drug effectiveness and clinical outcomes
Currently, therapy specialists use a one-size-fits-all approach for prescribing medicines for most diseases. Patients are prescribed an average dose of medicine and then the specialist makes adjustments to the therapy according to the response of the patient.
Pharmacogenomics ensure that patients are prescribed the most optimal dosage from the start of treatment, so they can be used to minimize the possibility of an adverse reaction to drug therapy.
This makes it evident that both individualized drug therapy and pharmacogenomics are increasingly influencing clinical outcome in many areas, including pharmacology, toxicology, and drug regulation.
The relationship with pharmacogenetics
The field of pharmacogenomics is enhanced by the rapid development of new methods from research scientists that encourage the informed application of pharmacogenetic patient therapy. The purpose is to provide genetic information on an individual level.
Pharmacogenetic testing also helps clinicians to personalize treatment more effectively by identifying patients who may respond well from taking particular opioids, such as tramadol, hydrocodone, and codeine. According to Millennium labs, this testing can also greatly improve the clinical outcome for patients suffering from psychiatric disorders and chronic pain, as it is developed to detect enzyme variation related to the medication metabolism prescribed to these patients.
In other words, it breaks down the much broader investigation of variations at the genomic level and reveals variations in specific genes. This provides a more fundamental understanding of the gene associated with the disease, and of drug reaction on the individual gene level, which is essential for the future progress of personalized patient therapy.
The implications for the future
The goal of pharmacogenomics is to implement evidence-based approaches in patient settings to predict drug response at an individual level and, ultimately, personalize patient therapy. The diagnostic results and predictive tests may result in placement, and other clinical treatment developments.
The information derived from pharmacogenetic labs can also be utilized for future treatment with drugs having a similar mechanism of action. Because pharmacogenomics enable physicians to prescribe drugs with accuracy and results in effective therapy with minimal side effects, it can deliver significant cost reductions throughout the health care industry.
So based on the success of pharmacogenomics so far, it is recognized that instead of asking for a full medication package to address diseases, the obstacles facing patient drug therapy can be addressed on an individual level, one patient at a time, at different stages in the quest for personalized and accurate patient treatment.
Lastly, pharmacogenomics are opening the door for new and targeted drug regulation and development to promote cost-effective methods of drug therapy.